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Spanish verbs conjugation - Conjugador TIP

The conjugation of verbs in Spanish and their morphology

TIP has developed an innovative Spanish verbs conjugator available in this web that it shows the simple and compound conjugation. The Conjugador TIP doesn’t use rules, but it uses a database of over 14 000 previously conjugated and verified verbs.

For see the conjugation of a verb you must wirte your infinitive into the box and press the Conjugate button. Soon, TIP will include a morphologic tagger to accept as input any conjugated form of a verb of the database, and also tagging enclitic pronouns and/or added prefixes. The names of tenses used match the academic terminology and the established by Andrés Bello in his Grammar of Spanish language for use by the Americans (1847), applied in several Latin American countries. The TIP Conjugator of Spanish verbs presents separately the conjugation of negative forms, pronominal conjugation and conjugation with the female subject, in order to make easier to read the information displayed.

The Conjugador TIP of Spanish verbs presents separately the conjugation of negative forms, the pronominal conjugation and the conjugation with the subject in feminine, in order to make the information shown easier. In addition, the different conjugations have been incorporated, accepted by the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, corresponding to different geographical areas: the use of vos as the second person of the singular (mainly used in Río de la Plata) and the use of ustedes as second person plural (mainly used in the Canary Islands and in most of Latin America), and the use of forms of respect usted and ustedes.

In order to help to better understand the conjugation by the reader, notes on the morphological and orthographic information of all the irregular verbs are shown. From these notes you can get the list of verbs that meet it. Likewise, other verbs that follow the same conjugation model are shown, being able to obtain all the verbs that are conjugated in that way. The Conjugador TIP includes two more novelties: each verbal form shows its frequency of occurrence in the Corpus of Reference of Current Spanish (CREA) and the forms with enclitic pronouns that appear in said Corpus.

When citing this resource, please use the following reference:

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, G; Carreras-Riudavets, F; Hernández-Figueroa, Z; (2009). Conjugación de verbos en español - Conjugador TIP. Available at https://tulengua.es

Grammatical categories

Initially, it takes recognition of the infinitive to show in a first section, its grammatical category. Grammatical categories covered are: transitive, intransitive and pronominal. The Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) defines these categories as:

  • Transitive verb. Verbs that use direct object. For example, amar a Dios, decir la verdad.
  • Intransitive verb. Verbs that don’t use direct object. For example, nacer, morir, correr.
  • Pronominal verb. Verbs that use in all its forms an unstressed pronoun that agrees with the subject and has no role in part of speech. Some verbs are exclusively pronominals as arrepentirse, and others take some significant or expressive nuances in reflexive forms; for example, caer or morir.

The Conjugador TIP shows next to all forms of pronominal verbs its corresponding unstressed personal pronoun in brackets to indicate that, depending on use, must be accompanied by the pronoun. In the verbs that are exclusively pronominal bracket disappears to indicate mandatory accompany the conjugated form with its pronoun.

The conjugation models

The conjugation models of the verbs facilitate the conjugation of new or unknown verbs by the speaker. Why choose a single infinitive as a model of conjugation of a group of verbs that are conjugated in the same way? If the model must be a reference known by the speaker to facilitate the conjugation of other verbs, it will be better to offer more than one reference in case the initial proposal is also unknown by the speaker. From this point of view, the Conjugador TIP has as models the most frequent verbs in the Corpus of Reference of the Present Spanish (CREA) of each group of verbs that are conjugated in the same way. To establish the number of groups of verbs that are conjugated the same, the Conjugador TIP establishes that any small morphological, orthographic, simply graphical change or of defectivity in the conjugation of a verb, with respect to the regular conjugation, will give rise to a new model of conjugation, since most of the speakers can feel unpredictable such changes from the general morphological rules of Spanish. Therefore, the concept of irregularity is applied in its broadest interpretation.

Verbs with double conjugation

The verbs that share infinitive and have different conjugation, such as aterrar, asestar, derrocar,... are displayed in a numbered list of possibilities. After selecting each one in the list, the Conjugador TIP shows its meaning in the recognition section, in order to help user identify what is the verb he wants to conjugate. The verbs that have some type of defective, depending on the meaning to be used, apply the same process, such as llover.

When the consulted sources present more than one conjugation model for the same verb (engrosar, repatriar, evacuar, aindiar, ...) a message is displayed in the Recognition section and then the information collected is indicated with one or more notes from the sources consulted. As happens with the defectiveness of some verbs, discrepancies have been found about the conjugation of some verbs in the consulted sources, a feature that we have clearly highlighted with a message. Selecting some of the messages used for these cases, you can access the list of verbs that have the same pattern:

Irregular verbs

For all the irregular verbs, the morphological changes that affect the conjugated forms of the verb are detailed in the Additional Information section. Each change is explained in a different morphological Note. The changes considered are those that affect both the structure of the root, as well as the ending or the accentuation of a conjugated form (see, for example, the verbs ir, ser, tener,...).

For all those regular or irregular verbs, where the conjugation has been affected by orthographic changes resulting from compliance with the spelling rules of Spanish, the orthographic changes that affect the conjugated forms of the verb are detailed in the Additional Information section. Each change is explained in a different Spell Note. The changes considered are those related to the changes of the g for gu, g for j, c for qu and c for z, and vice versa in all cases (see, for example, the verbs seguir, menguar, dirigir, delinquir, ejercer, aparcar, ligar, adelgazar, ...). In addition, pressing with the mouse on any Spelling Note you access the list of verbs that fit the indicated in the note.

Both the Morphological Notes and the Spelling Notes can be individually selected so that, when you click on the button Highlight the irregular forms, the conjugated forms that meet the selected notes are highlighted in color. This allows the reader to easily identify the irregular forms of a verb and those that have been affected by a spelling change. In addition, pressing with the mouse on any morphological Note accesses the list of verbs that conform to what is indicated in the note.

The academic orthography of 1999 introduced changes in the graphic accentuation of some monosyllables directly affecting the conjugation of some verbs (criar, fiar, freír, etc.). For that reason and not to confuse the reader, Conjugador TIP keeps the two versions clearly indicated with a Spelling Note.

Defective verbs

Defective verbs are those verbs that don't have complete conjugation sets. Some verbs are only defective as empedernir or atardecer and others who are depending on their meaning with which they are used, for example, poner or estar (see these verbs in the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy). Defective types in verbs are listed (terminology used is that of Institute of Hispanic Verbology):

Conjugador TIP shows a message with the type of defectiveness that the conjugated verb has and it is possible, by pressing the mouse button on the message, to access the list of verbs that have the same defectivity. We have found discrepancies about the defectivity of some verbs in the consulted sources, a feature that we have clearly highlighted with a message.

Irregular participles

The New Grammar of the Spanish Language calls the irregular participles also strong participles because they present the accent in the root and tend to be inherited forms of Latin. Just as the irregularities of the conjugation have been studied by linguists, the same does not occur with the irregularities of the particles. Simply, the irregular participles come from Latin and you have to learn them as such. The classification that is shown for the irregular participles is made from an objective point of view and without entering to evaluate the linguistic considerations that could exist associated to each one. As in the rest of the articles, the idea is to help memorize and use better the conjugation of Spanish verbs from the study of groups of verbs that have a certain characteristic.

Conjugation by geographical areas

Another new features of Conjugador TIP is used to show the different conjugations by Spanish-speaking:

  • Spanish. Traditional conjugation of Spain and America that does not use the vos form.
  • Río de la Plata (voseo). Common conjugation in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and others parts of Central and South America. The Conjugadot TIP uses the alternative conjugation of second person the present indicative pronoun vos instead of and as well as the same person the imperative.
  • Canary Island (ustedes). Common conjugation in Canary Island, South and Central America, and areas of Andalusia. People uses the second person plural ustedes instead of vosotros, which is useful for formal treatment and courtesy. At this regions, the second person plural mutch up with the third person plural.
  • Formal treatment, with respect or common courtesy. In the second person singular and plural is used, respectively, usted and ustedes. These are the forms used for formal treatment, with respect or common courtesy when you address somebody.

Verbal forms with enclitic pronouns

The unstressed personal pronouns o clitics me, te, le, la, lo, se, nos, os, les, las y los can perform its part of speech of verb complement before or behind the verb. A clitic that precedes its verb is called proclitic and written separately -Yo te lo dije-, and a clitic that follows its verb is called enclitic and written attached to the verb -tírasela. The TIP Conjugator displays the verb forms with enclitic pronouns used into the Present Spanish Reference Corpus (CREA) de la Royal Spanish Academic (RAE). After examining the CREA, we have tagged more than 50 000 forms, with enclitic pronouns, belonging to more than 5000 verbs. You can view these forms when you place the mouse over the sign (+) in brackets at the end of the corresponding conjugated form. Example:

Infinitive: amar (+) Past participle: amado Gerund: amando (+)

Los pronombres personales átonos o clíticos me, te, le, la, lo, se, nos, os, les, las y los pueden ejercer su función de complemento verbal delante del verbo o detrás del verbo. Cuando van delante se denominan proclíticos y se escriben separados del verbo -Yo te lo dije-, y cuando se escriben por detrás se denominan enclíticos y se escriben pegados al verbo -tírasela. El Conjugador TIP muestra las formas con pronombres enclíticos usadas en el Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual (CREA) de la Real Academia Española (RAE). Previo análisis del CREA se han reconocido más de 50000 formas, con pronombres enclíticos, repartidas entre más de 5000 verbos. Dichas formas se muestran al pasar el ratón por encima del signo (+) que se encuentra entre paréntesis al final de la forma conjugada correspondiente. Ejemplo:

Infinitivo: amar (+)     Participio: amado      Gerundio: amando (+)

The consulted sources

When the Conjugator TIP shows the conjugation, also it shows aditional information that is drawn from consulted sources and referred with the follow abbreviations:

The Conjugador TIP does not show the source for every verb, because of there is many verbs without problem in their conjugation and every source offers the same information.