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Palabras TIP

Palabras TIP is an on-line application which allows to search for words in a subset of 1 816 345 words of our Lexicon TIP examples of words that match certain characteristics. Palabras TIP allows to search for examples of words ending with or that begin with sequences of specific letters, that contain them or, that simply, have a certain number of letters. Also look for examples of palindrome. Palabras TIP searches over 1 800 000 inflected and conjugated words of the Lexicon TIP that have been generated from over 215 000 canonical forms. This set of words have been selected taking into account their frequency of use and includes words of all grammatical categories, also proper names, surnames, place names and gentile, as well as augmentative, pejorative and diminutive together with the rest of the Spanish inflected words.

Lexicon TIP

The Lexicon TIP stores varied lexical information of Spanish words and also has established relationships between them under different criteria. The canonical forms of the conjugated or inflected forms can be distinguished in the corpus, which can have a canonical form depending on whether it is a verb or not. In addition, numerous proper names, surnames and place names have been compiled, as well as some locutions and foreigners. It also contains derivation relationships between the canonical forms of the corpus.

Canonical forms

To each stored canonical form are associated the following attributes: the grammatical category, the flexion, the number of basic inflections (gender and number) that it has, the number of syllables, the position of the tonic syllable, the number of etymologies, the number of total meanings, the number of meanings for the grammatical category, the frequency of occurrence in the CREA, seniority, among other data related to the meanings.

The grammatical categories of words are a key element in the treatment of natural language. Therefore, as many equal canonical forms have been stored as grammatical categories can play a word. Also, the etymology is a factor that influences when it comes to storing the same canonical forms, given that they affect the lexico-genetic relations that the words have with each other and should not be confused in the same entry. For example, the nouns considered are: noun, toponymic noun, patronymic noun, anthroponymic noun, noun proper, abbreviation used as noun, acronym used as noun, symbol used as noun, foreign noun, noun numeral cardinal, noun numeral ordinal and noun fractional numeral. The adjectives have been classified in 14 groups, the adverbs in 21 groups, the pronouns in 14 groups, the conjunctions in 16 groups. Articles, prepositions, contractions, interjections, onomatopoeias, expressions and locutions are also stored. This classification has led, for example, to the following entries in the Lexicon TIP:

coca: Six feminine nouns corresponding to six different etymologies, a toponymic noun and a patronymic noun. All entries have the corresponding attributes and push-ups.

cuando: A noun, a preposition, two adverbs and five conjunctions. All entries have the corresponding attributes and push-ups.

Under this criterion the Lexicon TIP consists of:

Canonical forms 259 399
Unique canonical forms 226 104

And the distribution by grammatical categories is:

Grammatical category Canonical form
Nouns 118 694
Adjectives 45 631
Adverbs 71 604
Verbs 21 700
Pronouns 82
Conjunctions 55
Prepositions 48
Others 281

Each canonical form has stored all the corresponding flexions, regardless of their frequency of use in Spanish. The flexions considered are: gender, number, neutral, superlative, diminutive, augmentative and pejorative. For each one of them, three levels are distinguished in the corpus: regular flexion, irregular flexion and very irregular flexion. In addition, words that are common or ambiguous in terms of gender or number have been tagged. For each flexed shape, its frequency is stored in the CREA. Therefore, the corpus has many similar words stored but related to different canonical forms. According to this criterion, the Lexicon TIP consists of:

Words 6 334 405
Unique words 4 361 506


Each infinitive is associated with the same information as the canonical forms and also the following attributes are added: conjugation model, number of conjugated forms, type of irregularity and/or defectiveness if it has one. The grammatical categories considered for the verbs are: transitive, intransitive and pronominal. Infinitives with different grammatical categories are stored in different entries in order to correctly establish derivative, semantic, synonymic, etc. relationships. Also, the conjugation model is a factor that influences when storing the same infinitives with a different conjugation model since it affects the conjugate forms associated with each one. This classification has led, for example, to the following entries in the Lexicon TIP:

Engrosar: Two transitive, two intransitive and two pronominal. This duplicity is due to the fact that this verb admits a regular and an irregular conjugation in all its grammatical categories. All entries have the corresponding attributes and conjugations.

Despelotar: Two transitive and four pronominal. This verb has four different etymologies. A different entry is stored for each grammatical category of each etymology. All entries have the corresponding attributes and conjugations.

Under this criterion the TIP Lexicon consists of:

Infinitives 21 700
Unique infinitives 14 616

And the distribution by grammatical categories is:

Grammatical category Infinitives
Transitives 11 683
Pronominals 5354
Intransitives 4249

Each infinitive has stored all the conjugated forms that correspond to it, regardless of its frequency of use in Spanish. All the irregular bends have associated the type of irregularity that has (orthographic, accentuation, morphological, other) and its frequency in the CREA.

Derivative relationships

A derivative relationship has been established between two canonical forms when one of them has been formed from the other. Of the different processes of word formation in Spanish, the Lexicon TIP only includes the suffix, prefix and parasynthetic derivations. To establish these relationships, etymological or strictly linguistic criteria have not always been followed; a synchronic study of the prefixes and suffixes of all the canonical forms of the Lexicon TIP has been carried out and relations have been established between them whenever there is a lexical-formative characteristic that allows it. Some examples of these relationships, in the Lexicon TIP, are shown below:

Suffixals: pistolera, pistolero, pistoletazo, pistolear.

Suffixals: oquedad, oquedal, oqueruela.
Parasynthetics: enhuecar, ahuecar.

Suffixals: accionario, accionista, accionar.
Prefixals: coacción, inacción, interacción, reacción, retroacción.

Suffixals: peal, peana, peciolo, pedaje, pedal, pedestal, pedestre, pedio, peón, pezón, pial, pielera, pihuela, podálico, podio.
Prefixals: antepié, bípede, bípedo, contrapié, cuadrúpedo, cubrepié, guardapiés, lavapiés, mediopié, retropié, sobrepié, sopié, traspié.
Parasynthetics: apear, ápodo, aspear, despear, despiaco, dipodia, heterópodo, supedáneo.

Suffixals: pelaje, pelambre, pelamen, pelanas, pelar, pelaza, pelero, pelete, pelillo, pelín, pelona, peloso, pelote, peluca, peluche, peludo, pelusa, piloso.
Prefixals: guardapelo, mediopelo, repelo, sobrepelo.
Parasynthetics: apelar, depilar, despeluchar, despeluzar, empelar, entrepelar, espelucar, espeluscar, espeluzar, espeluznar, respeluzar.

This type of ralations has given rise to the creation of word families that derive from the same canonical form. For each relation the affix used has been marked and if the union of the affix to the primitive form has been done in a regular or irregular manner.

Under this criterion the TIP Lexicon consists of:

Word families 62 204
Derivative relationships 138 238

And the distribution by grammatical categories is:

Kind of relationship Quantity
Suffixal 120 470
Prefixal 13 896
Parasynthetic 3872